यदा हि नेन्द्रियार्थेषु न कर्मस्वनुषज्जते |
सर्वसङ्कल्पसंन्यासी योगारूढस्तदोच्यते || 4||
yadā hi nendriyārtheṣhu na karmasv-anuṣhajjate
sarva-saṅkalpa-sannyāsī yogārūḍhas tadochyate
yadā—when; hi—certainly; na—not; indriya-artheṣhu—for sense-objects; na—not; karmasu—to actions; anuṣhajjate—is attachment; sarva-saṅkalpa—all desires for the fruits of actions; sanyāsī—renouncer; yoga-ārūḍhaḥ—elevated in the science of Yog; tadā—at that time; uchyate—is said
When the sage feels no attachment for sense-objects and actions, renouncing the ego-centric will (samkalpa) then he is said to be enthroned in yoga.
The words ‘yada‘ and ‘tada‘ are used to point out the exact moment when a sage is called a ‘Yogarudha’. Three conditions are to be fulfilled.
- Non-attachment to sense-objects
- Non-attachment to actions.
- Renunciation of all thoughts.
So long as the mind is attached to sense objects, it runs outwards for the enjoyment of worldly pleasures. When the mind does not turn inwards, meditation is not possible. When dispassion develops, the outgoing tendency of the mind stops, and then it can easily be trained to look for the Self within, Nishkamakarma develops dispassion.
When the mind finds happiness in Atma, man loses all pleasure in action. Moreover, as the mind is detached from the senses no action can take place, because contact with the external world is possible only through the senses. Actionlessness occurs in the higher stages of Sadhana. Some great sages who have passed beyond all relative thoughts, and are established in perfect Yoga, come down from that supreme state to act in the world for the good of humanity.
Renunciation of the ego-centric will is the third attribute of the Yogarudha. First of all bad thoughts should be replaced by good thoughts and then all thoughts should be given up. When there are no thoughts, the sage is enthroned in Yoga, union with the Self. The common man should complete the preliminary education of the mind to give up impure and sinful thoughts. Noble ideals, good aims, useful activity, selfless work – all these should be assiduously cultivated. There is no other way to purify the mind. The study of the Sastras, the company of holy men, association with good people, are helpful to strengthen the good and eliminate the evil. Divine and devotional thoughts and feelings should become natural to the mind.
Afterward, when the mind, through intense meditation, reach the Self and tastes the infinite bliss, good thoughts also come to an end. When the mind, merges in Atma, Atma alone exists. This is the thought-free state of the Yogarudha. It is not emptiness or nothingness, because, in the thought-free state, the all-pervading knowledge consciousness is fully awake though there is no mind. Some great sages who come down to the relative plane of the mind work for the good of mankind.
Question: What are the attributes of a Yogarudha?
Answer: Non-attachment to sense objects and actions, and renunciation of all thoughts are the attributes of a Yogarudha.