सङ्कल्पप्रभवान्कामांस्त्यक्त्वा सर्वानशेषत: |
मनसैवेन्द्रियग्रामं विनियम्य समन्तत: || 24||
शनै: शनैरुपरमेद्बुद्ध्या धृतिगृहीतया |
आत्मसंस्थं मन: कृत्वा न किञ्चिदपि चिन्तयेत् || 25||
saṅkalpa-prabhavān kāmāns tyaktvā sarvān aśheṣhataḥ
manasaivendriya-grāmaṁ viniyamya samantataḥ
śhanaiḥ śhanair uparamed buddhyā dhṛiti-gṛihītayā
ātma-sansthaṁ manaḥ kṛitvā na kiñchid api chintayet
saṅkalpa—a resolve; prabhavān—born of; kāmān—desires; tyaktvā—having abandoned; sarvān—all; aśheṣhataḥ—completely; manasā—through the mind; eva—certainly; indriya-grāmam—the group of senses; viniyamya—restraining; samantataḥ—from all sides; śhanaiḥ—gradually; śhanaiḥ—gradually; uparamet—attain peace; buddhyā—by intellect; dhṛiti-gṛihītayā—achieved through determination of resolve that is in accordance with scriptures; ātma-sanstham—fixed in God; manaḥ—mind; kṛitvā—having made; na—not; kiñchit—anything; api—even; chintayet—should think of
Having abandoned all desires born of the ego-centric will, having restrained the group of senses with mind from all sides, one should attain quietude slowly and slowly by the intellect held firmly. And then, fixing the mind in Atma, he should not think of anything else at all.
In the early part of this Discourse, the external aspects of meditation, like the place, the seat, and the posture, have been explained. Now, the Lord explains the internal process of Dhyana Yoga.
All the desires should be given up completely. What is the source of these desires? They are born of the ego-centric will (sankalpa). So desires are described as born from Sankalpa (samkalpa prabhavah). When there is no sankalpa (thought) there is no desire. By discrimination and dispassion, it is possible to root out Sankalpa. All desires without reservation should be given up completely. We have to note that whenever the Lord speaks of desires, he invariably refers to ‘all’ of them, because he knows that one desire leads to another, and that to a third, and they would extend to infinity if they are allowed to breed. So, the instruction is that all desires should be abandoned completely. When there are no desires, the mind is calm and collected and it can be made to rest in the Self. So for Dhyana Yoga abandoning g all desires is essential.
The whole group of senses should be restrained from all sides. Even here, the Lord insists on total restraint of all the senses, not partial control of all the senses or complete control of some of the senses. The words ‘indriyagramam’ and ‘samantatah’ show that in Dhyana Yoga total control of every one of the senses is essential. The mind is the instrument of control. The senses are like wild horses, and the mind is the strong rein to check their turbulent behaviour. If the mind is pure and godly, what can the senses do? They are automatically brought under control. If the mind is impure on account of past samskaras, then they draw the mind away from the spiritual path. So it is said ‘be controlled by purity of mind acquired through discrimination and dispassion’.
The aspirant should attain quietude by the intellect held firmly. This stillness or quietude is the effect of shutting out the external world by perfect sense-control. Intellect is higher than the mind (Manastu para buddhih). But the intellect will be powerless to assert itself if it does not function with firmness, courage, and determination. The rebellious mind will overpower the intellect and make it dance to its tune. If the mind is like a tiger, the intellect should be like the lion. Then only the mind yields to the immovable determining will of the intellect and turns inside to see the Self.
The process of sense-control and mind-control should be carried on slowly and slowly (sanaih-sanaih). Force should be avoided. The mind should be turned inwards by long slow steady practice. It should be persuaded and induced to get back to back its source, from the objective world where it has wandered about for many many lives without check or control or guidance. On account of past momentum, the mind runs out in spite of one’s best effort to stop it. One may hold it by violence, but it cannot be for long. Again when the control is relaxed, it runs in its old grooves. By violent repression, the inner personality may be damaged. So persuasion is the only way. Let the mind be told that what it is running after is after all a mirage, that if it turns inwards it would find a nobler and higher treasure, and that its external attachments have brought only pain and suffering. Thus thinking discriminating and reasoning the mind will gradually change its former attitude. As it finds rest and peace within, it would be induced to rest in the Self longer and longer. The practice should be carried on day after day, and only then the mind come to rest. Slow and steady wins the race.
The teaching of the Gita contains the essence of all sastras and the aim of all kinds of Sadhana. The mind should be fixed in Atma, and nothing else should be thought of. As the mind contemplates Atma, it is more and more absorbed in it, till finally it is dissolved like a bit of salt in the sea.
Dhyana in its highest stage is oneness with the object of meditation. So there is nothing other than Atma in that state. If the mind deviates from its aim even for a second, by the intrusion of some thought, Dhyana is interrupted. That is why the Lord declares that nothing other than Atma should be allowed to crop up in the mind during meditation.
This exhortation of the Gita should be remembered and thought of by all the seekers- “Establish the mind in Atma and do not think of anything else,” May this be practically realised by all earnest seekers on the spiritual path.
Question: What are the conditions to be adopted by one practising Dhyana Yoga?
Answer: He should give up all desires completely. He should restrain the senses and the mind from all sides. He should turn the mind inwards by the control of the determined intellect and fix it in the Self. He should not think of anything other than Atma.
Question: From whence do desires arise?
Answer: Desires arise from the ego-centric will.
Question: What is the type of intellect needed for controlling the mind?
Answer: The intellect should be firm and undespondent.
Question: How should Dhyana be performed?
Answer: Dhyana on the Self should be done slowly and slowly.