सर्वभूतेषु येनैकं भावमव्ययमीक्षते |
अविभक्तं विभक्तेषु तज्ज्ञानं विद्धि सात्त्विकम् || 20||
sarva-bhūteṣhu yenaikaṁ bhāvam avyayam īkṣhate
avibhaktaṁ vibhakteṣhu taj jñānaṁ viddhi sāttvikam
sarva-bhūteṣhu—within all living beings; yena—by which; ekam—one; bhāvam—nature; avyayam—imperishable; īkṣhate—one sees; avibhaktam—undivided; vibhakteṣhu—in diversity; tat—that; jñānam—knowledge; viddhi—understand; sāttvikam—in the mode of goodness
In all the beings separated into different categories, that knowledge which sees the one inseparable Reality (Atma), know it to be Sattvic Jnana.
To the physical eye and the deluded mind, the beings of the world both moving and non-moving appear distinct and separate from one another. They are divided into separate categories. But to man in whom the knowledge is opened, the one inseparable and indivisible Brahman alone appears as the one Reality pervading all. That knowledge by which this oneness is discovered, known and seen is called Sattvic Jnana.
Sarvabhuteshu: The Lord (Atma) is present in all beings of the universe. So, even the lowest of beings have the Lord as their background and foundation. Knowing it every one can reach the Supreme. Though the wave is small and weak, yet the foundation for it is the mighty ocean. Merging in it, the little wave realises its mighty reality. So also, the little man, who is thinking of himself as low, weak, wretched and miserable, can realise his immeasurable power and knowledge by merging in Atma, the one reality behind everything in the universe. Know that you are Atma, and you are freed from all limitations.
The wise man sees the ocean behind the millions of waves big and small. He sees the clay in the millions of earthen pots of different shapes and sizes. He sees the string behind the hundreds of colourful flowers in the garland. This is the perception of the Reality behind the appearances. By this knowledge, man sees one indivisible ocean of Sachidananda throughout the universe. In the Sun, in the Moon, in the stars, in the oceans and mountains and rivers and trees, in men and women, in all the animals, birds and all beings moving and immoving, he sees the one Self, Atma, the Lord. In the diversity, he sees the unity; in the perishing, he sees the indestructible; in the insentient matter, he sees the one consciousness; in the changing, he sees the changeless. This is Sattvic Jnana. From this, we understand that ignorance is the cause of the perception of manifoldness. Knowledge sees the One, ignorance the many.
Three attributes are mentioned referring to Atma. 1. One, 2. Indestructible 3. Indivisible. The difference between Atma and the objective universe is given below.
|Indestructible (avyayam)||Subject to death|
People speak of different kinds of knowledge in the world, such as knowledge of physics or mathematics, or the arts like painting and architecture, etc., of the administrative and political systems, and so on. This knowledge does not take one beyond the objective world. The unity is not perceived or apprehended by this knowledge. What science can teach people to know the one indivisible, Indestructible Atma? What science can take them beyond the reach of death and destruction? What science can help them to see the Eternal and Immortal in this constantly changing universe? No material science can open this eye of knowledge. It is Brahma Vidya alone that will enable men to see the world as it really is. It is Brahmajnana alone that enables men to know what they really are, and which will shatter the blinding veil of ignorance and delusion. Of what use is all the knowledge of the world without knowing the basis, the foundation of all beings? So, let all aspire for that knowledge which alone will unravel the inscrutable mystery of life and death, and which will take beyond the horrible shadows of destruction whereunder all people are moving with fear and sorrow. Let us not be content with a little bit of intellectual culture and imagine it to be the be-all and end-all of life. All other kinds of knowledge cannot give a person the Absolute Truth. As a result, man lives and dies in samsara, and goes through the endless suffering of birth and death again and again.
The Upanishads declare the same truth.
“Mrtyossamrtyumapnoti ya iha naneva pasyati”
“He who sees here the manifold only goes from death to death”.
Therefore, whatever being we see, we should try to go beyond the external name and form, and look at the reality, Atma, invariably present in all beings. To see only the object, its shape, form, and size, is the lowest, to see its qualities is a better-developed vision, and to see the Atma, the basis and the foundation of all objects, is the highest vision. By the last, man realises the Self in himself and in all beings. This Sattvic Jnana is the highest state and the ultimate goal of all spiritual endeavour.
Question: What is the nature of Sattvic Jnana?
Answer: It is the knowledge that enables man to see the one in the manifold, to see the eternal in the perishable, and to see the inseparable in the separated.
Question: Where is God?
Answer: In all beings (moving and unmoving).
Question: What is the nature of Atma?
Answer: It is one, indestructible and indivisible.
Question: Is the manifold real?
Answer: No, oneness is the Reality, like water in the waves, like clay in the different pots, like gold in different jewels, and like a string in the garland.
Bhagavad Gita: Chapter 18 🔻 (78 Verses)