बुद्ध्या विशुद्धया युक्तो धृत्यात्मानं नियम्य च |
शब्दादीन्विषयांस्त्यक्त्वा रागद्वेषौ व्युदस्य च || 51||
विविक्तसेवी लघ्वाशी यतवाक्कायमानस: |
ध्यानयोगपरो नित्यं वैराग्यं समुपाश्रित: || 52||
अहङ्कारं बलं दर्पं कामं क्रोधं परिग्रहम् |
विमुच्य निर्मम: शान्तो ब्रह्मभूयाय कल्पते || 53||
buddhyā viśhuddhayā yukto dhṛityātmānaṁ niyamya cha
śhabdādīn viṣhayāns tyaktvā rāga-dveṣhau vyudasya cha
vivikta-sevī laghv-āśhī yata-vāk-kāya-mānasaḥ
dhyāna-yoga-paro nityaṁ vairāgyaṁ samupāśhritaḥ
ahankāraṁ balaṁ darpaṁ kāmaṁ krodhaṁ parigraham
vimuchya nirmamaḥ śhānto brahma-bhūyāya kalpate
buddhyā—intellect; viśhuddhayā—purified; yuktaḥ—endowed with; dhṛityā—by determination; ātmānam—the self; niyamya—restraining; cha—and; śhabda-ādīn viṣhayān—sound and other objects of the senses; tyaktvā—abandoning; rāga-dveṣhau—attachment and aversion; vyudasya—casting aside; cha—and; vivikta-sevī—relishing solitude; laghu-āśhī—eating light; yata—controls; vāk—speech; kāya—body; mānasaḥ—and mind; dhyāna-yoga-paraḥ—engaged in meditation; nityam—always; vairāgyam—dispassion; samupāśhritaḥ—having taken shelter of; ahankāram—egotism; balam—violence; darpam—arrogance; kāmam—desire; krodham—anger; parigraham—selfishness; vimuchya—being freed from; nirmamaḥ—without possessiveness of property; śhāntaḥ—peaceful; brahma-bhūyāya—union with Brahman; kalpate—is fit
Endowed with a pure understanding, restraining the self with firmness, turning away from sound and other sense-objects, and abandoning love and hatred; Dwelling in solitude, eating but little, controlling the speech, body, and mind, ever engaged in meditation and concentration, and cultivating freedom from passion; Forsaking conceit and power, pride and lust, wrath and possessions, tranquil in heart, and free from ego— he becomes worthy of becoming one with Brahman.
It is said that these three verses contain the essence of the Gita. All that is required for a man to attain the highest realisation is stated here. The method and the means and also the goal is declared here. As the goal is no less than Brahma-sakshatkara, the aspiring soul should cultivate every one of these virtues slowly and gradually, and climb the highest peak of spiritual illumination.
Visuddhaya: Purity should be perfect, (i.e.) not a speck of worldly dust should cover the mind. Certainly, when the mirror is cleaned well, the reflection is clear!
Dhritya: Firmness of self-control is essential. It is not easy to curb the disturbances of the mind. Courage, steadfastness, and iron will are needed to subdue the mind. Atma is not attained by the weak and the lazy. The courageous (dhirah) alone can obtain the vision of Brahman.
Atmanam niyamya: Control of mind and senses is the very basis of spiritual life. There is no other way to liberation except through victory over the distractions of the mind and attractions of the senses. That is why it is clearly stated-‘Give up sense-objects’ (subdadin vishayamstyktva). The outgoing mind should be drawn within, to look into the innermost regions of the heart and remain settled in the contemplation of the Self.
Viviktasevi: The aspirant should live in an atmosphere of solitude. The place may be in one’s own home if he is a householder. A small apartment should be chosen where he can carry on his sadhana uninterrupted. A crowded place full of noises is uncongenial for peaceful contemplation in the early stages of spiritual life. Hence dwelling in solitude is mentioned here.
Laghvasi: Moderation in food is essential for spiritual practice. Over-eating or too much fasting is both undesirable for the health of the body as well as the mind. Agreeable food in the moderate quantity should be the rule. Food not only sustains the body but also controls the quality of the mind. In the previous Discourse, the threefold types of food are clearly explained. The seeker should cultivate a Sattvic mind, and for that purpose, he should adopt Sattvic type of nourishment. These three verses being the very essence of the Gita, we can understand the degree of importance attached to physical nourishment in the scheme of spiritual progress.
Yatavakkayamanasah: Control of speech, body and mind is another essential quality of the spiritual seeker. By devotion and discrimination, he should bring under control the entire physical body, the whole mental organism, and the organ of speech which can cause mental destruction if left unchecked.
Dhyanayagaparonityam: Continuous meditation on the Self is necessary for the highest realisation. By systematic practice, such continuity of meditation can b be acquired. In the beginning, the seeker is likely to allow the mind freely in the sense-world after a bit of concentration and meditation. Thus the effect of the former is neutralised by the latter. So incessant practice is necessary. Even when he is working in the world, he should try to retain the calm, peaceful and Sattvic atmosphere of the meditation state.
Vairagyam samupasritah: The word ‘samupasritah’ shows the firmness of dispassion that should be practised by the seeker. Lukewarm dispassion is easily overwhelmed by sense attractions. Sankara says in the Vivekachudamani- The aspiring soul of weak dispassion who tries to cross the ocean of samsara is held by the neck and turned back by the sea-monster of worldly temptations and sensual desires.
Balam: Here the word implies animal strength and violence, the asuric force of the Rakshasas, arising from the egoistic conscience of one’s own superiority over others. The strength used for divine purpose is good. Expenditure of energy for unwholesome ends obstinately held should be abandoned.
Kamam Krodham: These twin words occur several times in the Gita. They are mortal enemies of man. They function together. ‘Kama’ is the origin of Krodha’ (Kamat Krodhobhijayate). These two evils should be destroyed root and branch.
Parigraham: (i.e.) Receiving gifts from others. The essential necessities of life got from charitable people may be accepted to sustain life. To seek for more is greed and covetousness. Not only does the receiver burdens himself with the bad Karma of the giver, but he also yields to the temptations of worldly pleasure by the acquisition of enjoyable things. So this evil should be given up along with the other evils mentioned in that line “Ahamkaram Balam….”
Vimuchya: Complete rejection of all the evils mentioned is implied.
Brahmabhuyay kalpate: The aspirant becomes fit to realise Brahman when he acquires the virtues and abandons the evils mentioned in the three verses.
Question: What is the way to Brahma sakshatkara? How should the aspirant act?
- He should purify the understanding.
- He should firmly control the mind;
- He should abandon all sense-objects which draw the mind out into the material world.
- He should give up attraction and hatred.
- He should dwell in solitude.
- His diet should be moderate.
- He should keep his speech, body and mind under his control.
- He should practise meditation continuously.
- He should possess intense dispassion.
- He should abandon egoism, violence, arrogance, desire, hatred, and covetousness.
- He should give up the sense of ‘I’ and ‘mine’.
- He should possess peace.
Question: How should man control the senses?
Answer: With firm will and courage.
Question: Who is fit for Brahmajnana?
Answer: He who possesses the above-mentioned qualities is fit for Brahma-jnana.
Bhagavad Gita: Chapter 18 🔻 (78 Verses)