असक्तबुद्धि: सर्वत्र जितात्मा विगतस्पृह: |
नैष्कर्म्यसिद्धिं परमां सन्न्यासेनाधिगच्छति || 49||
asakta-buddhiḥ sarvatra jitātmā vigata-spṛihaḥ
naiṣhkarmya-siddhiṁ paramāṁ sannyāsenādhigachchhati
asakta-buddhiḥ—those whose intellect is unattached; sarvatra—everywhere; jita-ātmā—who have mastered their mind; vigata-spṛihaḥ—free from desires; naiṣhkarmya-siddhim—state of actionlessness; paramām—highest; sanyāsena—by the practice of renunciation; adhigachchhati—attain
He whose intellect is unattached, who has subdued his self, whose desires are quelled, by renunciation attains the supreme actionless state of Atma.
Having propounded the principle of Nishkama Karma yoga, the Lord now explains the doctrine of Jnana Yoga which frees man finally from all kinds of action and takes him to the actionless state of Atma. Three qualities are mentioned here.
- Intellect which is not entangled in anything whatsoever;
Sarvatra: The detachment of the seeker should be complete.
There should not be the least trace of attachment to any material object. It is possible to remain detached in a state of Dhyana, but when the mind is released and begins to function in the external world, the same old desires and attachments come up to bind the person again. So, it is instructed to remain free from attachment under all conditions of life.
Jivatma: The conqueror of one’s own self is the master of the whole universe, and the conqueror of all the worlds remains bound if he is a slave of his own self. So, the internal enemies should be subdued and annihilated. Otherwise, they trouble the people like the thorn in the throat of the feeder. They never allow them to be happy and free, whatever may be their worldly possessions.
Vigatasprihah: He is free from the desire to enjoy the pleasure, which he had experienced formerly; and which remains in his memory as a deep-rooted longing. The mind is disturbed by such pleasurable memories and the longing to possess them again and again. Only when there are no longings and desires the mind remains steady and firm.
Naishkarmyasiddhim: Moksha is here described as ‘naishkarmyasiddhi’ (i.e.) the state when there are no actions either external or internal. As the Atmic state is beyond the body and mind, no action is possible for the man of Self-realisation. He remains as ‘Atma’ and Atma alone is. Such state is acquired by Sannyasa (i.e.) renunciation. Renunciation of what ?-of the fruit of action, of desires, of all attachments. Therefore, it follows that by relinquishing the fruits of action, all attachment and desires drop off gradually, and man thereby attains Moksha.
Paramam: Supreme. The Atmic state is the highest state, beyond all miraculous achievements.
Question: What is Naishkarmasiddhi?
Answer: It is the actionless state of Atma.
Question: How is it attained?
Answer: That state is attained 1. by the intellect purified of all attachment; 2. by the conquest of the mind 3. by renunciation of all actions with the fruits thereof.
Question: What is the state of Moksha?
Answer: It is the highest state of perfection and freedom.
Question: How can Karma lead to Naishkarmya?
Answer: Karma performed without attachment to the fruits thereof purifies the mind, and when the mind; is purified and mastery is obtained over self, the pure actionless state of Atma is realised.
Bhagavad Gita: Chapter 18 🔻 (78 Verses)