द्रव्ययज्ञास्तपोयज्ञा योगयज्ञास्तथापरे |
स्वाध्यायज्ञानयज्ञाश्च यतय: संशितव्रता: || 28||
dravya-yajñās tapo-yajñā yoga-yajñās tathāpare
swādhyāya-jñāna-yajñāśh cha yatayaḥ sanśhita-vratāḥ
dravya-yajñāḥ—offering one’s own wealth as sacrifice; tapaḥ-yajñāḥ—offering severe austerities as sacrifice; yoga-yajñāḥ—performance of eight-fold path of yogic practices as sacrifice; tathā—thus; apare—others; swādhyāya—cultivating knowledge by studying the scriptures; jñāna-yajñāḥ—those offer cultivation of transcendental knowledge as sacrifice; cha—also; yatayaḥ—these ascetics; sanśhita-vratāḥ—observing strict vows
Others offer wealth, austerity and Yoga as sacrifice and again others, the ascetics of rigid vows offer study and knowledge as sacrifice.
Some other forms of Yajnas are mentioned here:
- Dravyayajna: Wealth offered to deserving persons (dana) and for benevolent purposes is considered a form of sacrifice.
- Tapoyajna: Subjecting the body and senses to severe austerities by vows of fasting and silence etc. is a form of sacrifice.
- Yogayajna: Breath – control is a form of sacrifice.
- Svadhyayayajna: The study and the recitation of the Vedas and other sacred texts is a form of sacrifice.
- Jnanayajna: The pursuit of spiritual knowledge is a form of sacrifice.
Different types of persons, according to their Samskaras, follow different methods of sacrifice, and by performing them their mind reaches the final goal. All these are men of practical action in the field of spirituality. Those who work for Self-purification and God-realisation are all men of rigid vows (Samsitavratah).
Hard discipline, Self- restraint, the practice of vows, and such other Sadhanas are all necessary for Self-purification. The past Samskaras, the physical habits and mental tendencies have become a part and parcel of one’s nature. To change them is indeed an uphill task. Perseverance will ultimately conquer. Nothing can be done in a day. All crookedness shall be made straight in course of time. The idle and weak cannot make any progress. Spiritual realisation has its price and the price is self-control and renunciation. Renunciation of what? Of all the silly and worthless pleasures of the world. Indeed the price is very small compared to the fruit of attainment – the eternal bliss of Brahmajnana. It is like obtaining pure gold in exchange for worthless alloy. Who would not pay this price willingly and correctly? The difficulty is not so great as it is thought of. The initial attempt disturbs the body and the mind as a result of the new discipline. But the discipline itself becomes natural by habit. The ascetic (Yati) mentioned here is not a Sanyasi but a worker on the spiritual path. A huge tree cannot be cut with a nail-chipper; the axe is needed. And the axe to cut the mighty tree of ignorance and delusion is persistent, hard, unremitting discipline, restraint and control.