नान्यं गुणेभ्य: कर्तारं यदा द्रष्टानुपश्यति |
गुणेभ्यश्च परं वेत्ति मद्भावं सोऽधिगच्छति || 19||
nānyaṁ guṇebhyaḥ kartāraṁ yadā draṣhṭānupaśhyati
guṇebhyaśh cha paraṁ vetti mad-bhāvaṁ so ’dhigachchhati
na—no; anyam—other; guṇebhyaḥ—of the guṇas; kartāram—agents of action; yadā—when; draṣhṭā—the seer; anupaśhyati—see; guṇebhyaḥ—to the modes of nature; cha—and; param—transcendental; vetti—know; mad-bhāvam—my divine nature; saḥ—they; adhigachchhati—attain
When a man of insight beholds no agent other than the gunas, and also knows Him who is beyond the gunas, he attains My being.
This verse and the next are very important. The seekers who are enquiring into Truth should understand the idea and keep it always in their mind. It is the direct path to Brahma jnana (Moksha), liberation from the bondage of samsara. Whatever actions are performed by man, the agent invariably, is the Gunas (i.e), the mind which is composed of the three Gunas. Except the three Gunas there is no other thing as the mind. The mind through the agency of the senses and the body, causes all actions. The senses and the body, are instruments. The mind is the directing agent. What is bound is the mind; and what attains liberation is the mind. There is no other agent or enjoyer. Atma is distinct from this mind.
Therefore, the seeker has to understand that he is entirely distinct and separate from the three Gunas, that he is Atma, and hence that he is not at all the agent (karta) or enjoyer (bhokta). When this distinction is clearly seen, man remains as the seer (Drik). He realises Atma. So the first step towards liberation is to know that the real man is the seer (neither Karta nor Bhokta). O Jiva! do not get mixed up with the three Gunas, which constitute the mind; keep aloof from them; see what they do; but never get confused with them; they are not you; you are distinct from and separate from them. You are in truth, Atma. This is Lord’s compassionate teaching.
In the spectacular drama of the universe, the real actor is the mind, the three gunas. And the Atma, like the lighting in the theatre, is shedding its light on all, while remaining unattached to anything that is taking place on the stage. He is like the screen of the theatre on which the picture is projected. The picture is constantly changing and displaying various colours, characters and actions. The screen is not affected by the picture, whether it is a tragedy or a farce or anything else. Even so, the Atma stands really unattached and unaffected by the wailings and laughters of the mind, by the functions of the senses, and by the activities of the body. This is the highest Truth. All that is considered happiness or sorrow is only the modifications of the three gunas. Out of delusion, the Jiva identifies himself with the gunas, and attributes to himself what is Deha dharma and Mano-dharma. He says, ‘I am born; I am sick or healthy; I die; I am old or young;’ Thus he is clearly identifying himself with the body. He says again, “I am happy; I am sad; 1 am angry; I am calm; I am dull or I am bright.” Thus he is identifying himself with the mind and its changes. That is bondage. This idea of false identification is what is called ‘avidya’. The moment when the falsehood is found out, that very moment the Jiva knows that he is Atma, and there is no more a ‘Karta’ or a ‘Bhokta’ to be bound to the world. All bondage is shattered at one stroke.
Madbhavam so adhigacchati: Knowing that the gunas are the cause of all actions and knowing that he is the ‘drashta’ the Jiva becomes Siva, the nara (man) becomes Narayana, the Jana (man) becomes Janardana. So from this very moment onwards, the seeker should give up all foolish notions that he is this or that, and firmly fix himself in the state of Paramatma, beyond all the modifications of the body and the mind.
Adhi gacchati: The Lord declares that man attains God by this discrimination. Let the aspirants have faith in the Lord’s words, drive away all weakness and cowardice and attain the highest.
Anupasyati: The Lord uses this term to suggest that one should see clearly and doubtlessly that he is not the Karta (the doer).
The truth is that man is really free from all the actions of the body and the mind. They are all caused by Prakriti, the mind composed of the three gunas. But there is a danger here. Anyone, even a vile sinner, can claim guiltlessness or freedom from his criminal acts on the ground that he does not commit anything as he is only a ‘sakshi’ (witness). They do foul and filthy things in the name of religion and philosophy. Such imposters and pretenders suffer the fate that awaits them. Let it be known once and for all that the man of Self-ralisation can never indulge in any of the mean and wretched, foul and filthy things, pertaining to the flesh. He is pure like the Sun, pure like Ganges, pure like the purest that the human mind can conceive of. This purity in word, thought and deed is the hall-mark of the real Sadhu. He cannot cheat or hate anyone; he cannot be tempted by the attractions of the flesh; he cannot utter lies, he cannot injure others; he cannot be selfish in anything whatsoever. He is serene, calm, knowing, full of bliss, kind and compassionate, and his perfection is recognised by the wise, even as the bees recognise the honeyed flowers.
Question: What is the real cause of all the actions that man does?
Answer: The three Gunas (the mind composed of the Gunas).
Question: What is the real nature of man?
Answer: As soon as man knows that the three Gunas are the cause of all actions, and that he is the Sakshi (witness) he attains Paramatma. He is liberated. He is a Jivanmukta.
Question: From this, what is the way to self-realisation, Moksha?
Answer: “The three Gunas are the real doers of all actions; I am different from them; I am Atma.” – This clear knowledge is the way to Moksha.