अध्यात्मनित्या विनिवृत्तकामा: |
र्गच्छन्त्यमूढा: पदमव्ययं तत् || 5||
dvandvair vimuktāḥ sukha-duḥkha-sanjñair
gachchhanty amūḍhāḥ padam avyayaṁ tat
niḥ—free from; māna—vanity; mohāḥ—delusion; jita—having overcome; saṅga—attachment; doṣhāḥ—evils; adhyātma-nityāḥ—dwelling constantly on the self and on God; vinivṛitta—free from; kāmāḥ—desire to enjoy senses; dvandvaiḥ—from the dualities; vimuktāḥ—liberated; sukha-duḥkha—pleasure and pain; saṁjñaiḥ—known as; gachchhanti—attain; amūḍhāḥ—unbewildered; padam—abode; avyayam—eternal; tat—that
Free from pride and delusion, having conquered the evil of attachment, ever devoted to the Supreme Self, with desires completely stilled, liberated from the pairs of opposites known as pleasure and pain, the undeluded reach that Immutable Goal.
In this verse, the qualities of the wise who attain the non-returning state Moksha, are clearly described. Six qualities are mentioned
(1) Freedom from pride (ahamkara) and delusion,
(2) Conquest of the evil of attachment to the sense-world. ‘Sanga’ is attachment; it is evil. This evil should be given up by detachment and dispassion.
(3) adhyatmanityah: Dwelling constantly in the Self. Here the word ‘nitya‘ is to be noted. Constant memory and understanding are necessary. At first, the seeker spends some time in Atma nishta and then he comes out into the objective world. This period of Self-centred meditation should be extended gradually till he is firmly established in the Self always. Constancy is emphasised many times by the Lord, because ‘avidya’ overtakes man the moment when he forgets Atma. To forget Atma is itself ‘Avidya’. So, constancy is prescribed as a rule for the seekers. We come across three types of men in the world. The first and the highest are those who are constantly in contact with Self; the second are those who contemplate Atma for some time, and then go into worldly activities; and the third are those who remain immersed in worldly life always. The second type have the opportunity of rising to the highest state. The third type of people are the lowest and most miserable. They are plunged in ignorance and totally devoid of any enlightenment what-so-ever.
4) Vinivrittakamah: This, the fourth quality is essential for all seekers. This is combined with ‘adhyatmanityah‘ in the same line in the verse. The two qualities are thus brought together, and they are the very essence of enlightenment. The aspirants for Moksha should repeat this line, think of it, meditate on the idea and model their life accordingly. The first is tathvajnanam and the second is Vasanakshyam‘. So the line ‘adhyatma nitya vinivritha kamah’ is the sum and substance of all spiritual practice. The first is the state of dirsyarahitvam‘. The Sastras declare that both these are to be practised simultaneously. In fact, they are the two sides of the same coin (Moksha). When Drik (Atman) is attained, there is no Drisyam.
(5) Freedom from the pairs of opposites, known as pleasure and pain.
(6) Amudhah: Freedom from delusion. The spiritual sadhana undertaken constantly keeps away delusion, and thus the sages live in the light of perfect knowledge.
What is the reward of following the above practices? People reach the immortal state of Paramatma. They leave away all other things as they are unreal, impure, sorrow-breeding, and perishable.
Swami Vivekananda Says —
Don’t be fools always wandering from place to place; that’s all very good, but be heroes. “Free from pride and delusion, with the evil of attachment conquered, ever dwelling in the Self, with desires completely receded, liberated from the pairs of opposites known as pleasure and pain, the undeluded reach that Goal Eternal.” Who advises you to jump into fire? If you don’t find the Himalayas a place for sadhana, go somewhere else then. So many gushing inquiries simply betray a weak mind. Arise, ye mighty one, and be strong! Work on and on, struggle on and on![Source]
Question: What is the state of Paramatma?
Answer: It is unchanging and eternal.
Question: Who can attain it?
Answer: He who acquires the above six qualities.