इति गुह्यतमं शास्त्रमिदमुक्तं मयानघ |
एतद्बुद्ध्वा बुद्धिमान्स्यात्कृतकृत्यश्च भारत || 20||
iti guhyatamaṁ śhāstram idam uktaṁ mayānagha
etad buddhvā buddhimān syāt kṛita-kṛityaśh cha bhārata
iti—these; guhya-tamam—most secret; śhāstram—Vedic scriptures; idam—this; uktam—spoken; mayā—by Me; anagha—Arjun, the sinless one; etat—this; buddhvā—understanding; buddhi-mān—enlightened; syāt—one becomes; kṛita-kṛityaḥ—who fulfills all that is to be accomplished; cha—and; bhārata—Arjun, the son of Bharat
Thus, Ο sinless one, has this most profound teaching been imparted by Me. By knowing it a man becomes wise, Ο Bhārata, and fulfills all his duties.
The Lord declares the fruit of understanding the Supreme Purusha as distinguished from the Kshara and Akshara. He says that this Sastra, science taught by Him is the greatest secret (guhyatamam). The superlative form is used to show that this truth is the highest secret, greatest mystery to be known by man. Generally, no wise man reveals anything to a fool or a braggart. He selects his hearer by knowing his nature and character. Then only he reveals the secret. Here also the Lord has chosen Arjuna to be the recipient of this divine knowledge, because he is sinless (anagha). It is stated as a rule that Brahmavidya is not taught to persons who are devoid of the essential qualities of self-control. The seeker should first acquire mental purity (chittasuddhi) and then he gets the qualification (adhikara) to be initiated into the highest secret.
If any one like Arjuna, becomes sinless by devotion, austerity, ‘dhyana’ and other practices, he is certain to obtain the Highest Knowledge from some great-souled teacher (Guru) or by some incidental factor in his life. Or the Lord Himself confers the subtlety of the intellect capable of perceiving the truth (dadami buddhi yogam tam).
What is the fruit of acquiring this knowledge? He becomes (1) wise (having Self-knowledge), (2) he has accomplished all his duties. The performance of all other works in the world do not lead man to the highest state of perfection and freedom. All other works may confer merit (Punyam) by which one enjoys fruits of good life in other worlds. But still liberation is not attained. He has to be born again and again. When Brahma jnana is attained, he receives the merit of having accomplished all his duties, and has no further work to do with the body in this or in any other world. Therefore it is the duty of all seekers to rise to this plane of liberation and realise the fulness of bliss and blessedness. Without it, the cycle of birth and death continues and sorrow envelops them endlessly.
Question: What is the nature of this spiritual knowledge taught by the Lord?
Answer: It is the greatest secret and the highest mystery.
Question: Why did the Lord teach it to Arjuna?
Answer: Because Arjuna is free from sin.
Question: What is the fruit of acquiring this knowledge?
Answer: Man becomes (1) wise and (2) has accomplished all his duties.
Question: What then is the way to become wise and of fulfilled purpose?
Answer: To understand this secret knowledge is the way.