अयं धर्मः सर्वेषाम् भूतानाम् मधु, अस्य धर्मस्य सर्वाणि भूतानि मधु; यश्चायमस्मिन्धर्मे, तेजोमयोऽमृतमयः पुरुषः, यश्चायमध्यात्मं धार्मस्तेज्ōमयोऽमृतमयः पुरुषः, अयमेव स योऽयमात्मा, इदममृतम्, इदं ब्रह्म, इदं सर्वम् ॥ ११ ॥
ayaṃ dharmaḥ sarveṣām bhūtānām madhu, asya dharmasya sarvāṇi bhūtāni madhu; yaścāyamasmindharme, tejomayo’mṛtamayaḥ puruṣaḥ, yaścāyamadhyātmaṃ dhārmastejōmayo’mṛtamayaḥ puruṣaḥ, ayameva sa yo’yamātmā, idamamṛtam, idaṃ brahma, idaṃ sarvam || 11 ||
11. This righteousness (Dharma) is like honey to all beings, and all beings are like honey to this righteousness. (The same with) the shining, immortal being who is in this righteousness, and the shining, immortal being identified with righteousness in the body. (These four) are but this Self. This (Self-knowledge) is (the means of) immortality; this (underlying unity) is Brahman; this (knowledge of Brahman) is (the means of becoming) all.
This righteousness, etc. Although righteousness is not directly perceived, it is here described by the word ‘this’ as though it were, because the effects initiated by it (earth etc.) are directly perceived. Righteousness has been explained (I. iv. 14) as consisting of the Śrutis and Smṛtis, as the power which controls even the Kṣatriyas etc., which causes the variety of the universe through the transformation of the elements, and which is practised by people. This last is another reason why it has been mentioned here as something directly perceived—as ‘this righteousness.’ There truth and righteousness, consisting respectively of the scriptures and approved conduct, have been spoken of as one. Here, however, in spite of their identity they are mentioned as separate, because they produce their effects in two distinct forms—visible and invisible. Righteousness that is invisible, called Apūrva,1 produces its effects invisibly in a general and a particular form. In its general form it directs the elements such as earth, and in its particular form it directs the aggregate of body and organs, in matters relating to the body. Of these, the shining being who is in this righteousness that directs the elements such as earth, and, in the body, (the being identified with righteousness) that fashions the aggregate of body and organs (are also like honey to all beings and vice versa).