काम एष क्रोध एष रजोगुणसमुद्भव: ||
महाशनो महापाप्मा विद्ध्येनमिह वैरिणम् || 37||
śhrī bhagavān uvācha
kāma eṣha krodha eṣha rajo-guṇa-samudbhavaḥ
mahāśhano mahā-pāpmā viddhyenam iha vairiṇam
śhri-bhagavān uvācha—the Supreme Lord said; kāmaḥ—desire; eṣhaḥ—this; krodhaḥ—wrath; eṣhaḥ—this; rajaḥ-guṇa—the mode of passion; samudbhavaḥ—born of; mahā-aśhanaḥ—all-devouring; mahā-pāpmā—greatly sinful; viddhi—know; enam—this; iha—in the material world; vairiṇam—the enemy
The Blessed Lord said: It is desire, it is anger, born of Rajoguna (the impulse of action), all-consuming and all-evil. Know this as the enemy here.
Here the Lord explains the secret of the mysterious force that compels man to commit sin, though he does not wish it. Knowing full well that an act is evil, and sincerely wishing to avoid it, man, however, does it in spite of himself. This is within the experience of all human beings. The Lord analyses the force, and says that the twin evils of kama and krodha constitute the power behind all the sins committed by man.
Kama and Krodha are wicked twins like Ravana and Kumbhakarna, like Hiranyaksha and Hiranyakasipu. The aforesaid raga and dvesha are manifestations of kama and krodha. Of these two, kama is the first and krodha is but the effect of kama. The first is the cause and the second is the effect. When there is no cause there can be no effect. When there is no kama, there is no krodha. Kama is therefore said to be the first of the six evil tendencies in man – Kama, Krodha, Lobha, Moha, Mada and Matsarya. Kama is the captain of the team of inimical forces which harass mankind, and stand directly in the way of Self-realisation.
The Lord describes Kama and Krodha by two significant epithets. Kama is all-devouring (Mahasanah). Like fire, it burns, Consuming everything that is offered to satisfy its hunger for enjoyment. Fire is not extinguished so long as you pour oblations of oil and ghee into it. They only add to its consuming power. Such is kama. The attempt to satisfy it only makes it stronger and more clamorous for further and further enjoyment. How then can it be conquered? Let no fuel be added to the fire and the fire weakens and dies in ashes. So also, let no attempt be made to satisfy kama, and it dies a natural death. The rejection of desire as soon as it is born is the way to overcome it. Constant inquiry into the nature of the Self, which is bliss itself, will naturally eliminate desires from the mind. When man by his birth-right is the very source and fountain-head of all bliss, why does he need small external objects to give him joy and pleasure? So the seeker should constantly contemplate the blissful nature of his real Self.
Those twin evils are all sinful ( mahapapam ). The most heinous sins are committed, the greatest disasters of the human race are caused by these forces. The little good that man has accumulated through a series of births is neutralised and overweighed by the amount of sin committed by kama and krodha. Lust and greed form the food for Kama. When kama is frustrated it takes the ugly form of krodha (wrath).
Again they are described as the foes of man. They are the nearest and the greatest enemies of man. Through a series of births, they have acquired an undisputed mastery over the heart of man. Having occupied the innermost recesses of the heart, they have been exercising control and authority over man’s impulses and conduct in the material world. The whole personality of man is thus enslaved by a secret and powerful enemy for a long time. They have brought their associates also – Iobha, moha, mada and matsarya – into the inner part of man’s heart. These evils act with wonderful co-ordination. If one is suppressed another comes up. If that is suppressed, the former crop up again. With different shapes and forms, at unexpected times and in unexpected places, they show themselves up and harass the weak and unfortunate human beings.
Therefore the Lord speaks inspiring words to the seeker to conquer the enemy with courage and determination, however long and hard the struggle may be. The forth-coming verses ending with “jahi satrum mahabaho” is the Lord’s magnificent exhortation to defeat and destroy the enemy in every way possible.
Question: What is the force that compels man to commit sin?
Answer: It is Kama, and it is Krodha.
Question: What is the nature of these twin evils?
Answer: They are all-devouring and all-sinful, and they are the constant enemies of the spiritual seeker.